The blaze at the mine in Liaoning province also left 52 injured, Xinhua news agency said, quoting the state-owned Fuxin Coal Corporation.
There were no immediate details on the cause of the fire but mining accidents are common in China, the world's largest consumer of coal, where mine operators often skirt safety regulations.
Last year, China recorded 589 mining-related accidents, leaving 1,049 people dead or missing, according to the government. But both the number of accidents and fatalities were down more than 24 percent from 2012.
Authorities have sought to shut down small mines, a major source of accidents, in an effort to consolidate the industry.
In June 22 people were killed in an accident at a coal mine in the southwest city of Chongqing.
And 20 people died in April when a coal mine in southwest Yunnan province suddenly flooded, leaving miners trapped.